Hard, Strange Shifts and Sudden Shutdowns with the ZF 9-Speed Transmission

Posted on
Scott McCracken
#transmission #lawsuit #settlement #recall
Cross-cut diagram of a transmission on a green background

Fiat-Chrysler of North America (let’s just call ‘em FCA) wanted to make a splash when bringing back the 5th generation Cherokee after a decade-long hiatus. They commissioned ZF Friedrichshafen Group (let's just call 'em ZF) to build the first 9-speed automatic transmission for a consumer vehicle.

Common ZF 9-Speed Transmission Problems

It didn’t take long for the transmission to start causing problems. First, it delayed the Cherokee release by several weeks[1]. And when the SUV hit the road, well … let’s just say early adopters were less than impressed.

"From the day I purchased this car, 2/14/14 (Valentines Day), it has shifted roughly. Jerking and violently shaking on a daily basis. I have not had this car for over a year and no one at the dealership has been able to fix it. I feel violated and ripped off by Chrysler and the dealership I purchased the car from. I will never purchase another Chrysler vehicle! Worst car in the world." - 2014 Jeep Cherokee owner in Moore, Oklahoma

Most owners agree that it's nearly impossible to predict what the ZF 9-speed transmission will do.

Lurching through the gears

Getting through the first 3-gears can be like playing an overly aggressive game of red-light-green-light with a toddler. Other days it can be smooth as butter. Those are usually the days you bring it in for service, amirite?

"The transmission shifts rough in the lower 3 gears. The dealerships shop manager told us there is not a fix for it. There are software upgrades but they do not fix the problem. I have had one upgrade but it did nothing. The shop manager told me the newest upgrade make the transmission shift from 1st to 3rd, skipping 2nd. He also told me a replacement transmission would make it worse." - 2014 Jeep Cherokee owner in Denver, Colorado

Each of the low gears has it's own quirks:

  • 1st Gear: The drivetrain engagement from a stop is ... interesting. Some owners say it feels like it can take a full second from the moment they step on the gas to when the car actually starts moving. And once it does start moving, it's a coin flip if you're going to steadily get up to speed or squeal some tires.
  • 2nd Gear: One of the most common complaints is how the 9-speed hangs out in 2nd gear far too long.
  • 3rd Gear: When the transmission finally shifts into 3rd gear it can be an aggressive, lurching transition. Going from 2nd to 3rd gear is a great way to feel what whiplash feels like, without the inconvenience of having to get into an accident.

Sudden shutdowns and shifting into neutral

In August 2016, ZF North America announced they were recalling 505,000 transmissions with sensors that can suddenly shift the vehicle into neutral. From CarComplaints.com:

"The problem is caused by a terminal crimping issue with 26-way connectors on the sensor cluster harness assemblies. The company says the star-shaped connector was not properly crimped and the problem wasn't caught at the factory because of a manual setting used for measurements."

ZF said the recall affects the 9HP48 or 948TE transmissions, which FCA says can be found in certain 2014 Cherokees, and the 2015 Cherokee and Renegade.

Other FCA brands affected include the 2015 Chrysler 200 and the 2015 Ram ProMaster City.

Lawsuits Lead to a Settlement Offer for 2014-2015 Model Years

It didn't take long for FCA to start releasing transmission-related technical service bulletins (TSBs) to its dealers. TSBs are basically instructions to dealerships on how to handle problems that a customer is likely to have.

FCA remained adamant that the problem is not mechanical, but software related. But the 3 software patches they’ve released to date offer only "marginal" improvements according to owners.

Fed up with ineffective software patches, a lawsuit was filed against FCA in August 2015.

“Cherokee transmissions are so riddled with problems that Jeep dealers have no idea how to make repairs."

Even the dealerships can't argue that point.

Owners say they get all the costs associated with owning a car without any of the benefits. You know, like driving. That’s because the vehicles are constantly being "repaired" and the lack of a fix greatly diminishes the vehicle's resale value.

FCA's settlement opens up an extended warranty and potential cash compensation

Rather than letting the trial go to court, FCA reached a settlement with the plaintiffs.

As part of that settlement, owners will receive an extended warranty and may be eligible for cash compensation or trade-in vouchers if they can prove they’ve made official complaints.

To have a chance of receiving cash or a voucher, the customer must be able to prove they made three (3) transmission-related complaints to authorized dealerships on or before November 16, 2018.

The amount of compensation you can receive is based on how many transmission-related complaints you made, and can prove you made, to Chrysler dealers.

Proving once again that it pays to be a pain in the butt.

The settlement includes the 2014-2015 Jeep Cherokee, 2015 Jeep Renegade, 2015 Chrysler 200 and 2015 ProMaster City.

Transmission Issues in 2016–2019 Models

The settlement is great news for some owners, but it's not like the problem has just disappeared. While 2014 and 2015 owners complained in record numbers, the number of complaints for the 2016 and later models is now starting to rise. As these transmissions rack up more miles, I imagine it'll only get worse from here.

Cherokee2016Transmission not working properly
2017Difficulty shifting
2018Won't shift into higher gears
2019Shifts hard and rough
Renegade2016Hard shifting
2017Transmission causes stalling

A series of technical service bulletins (TSB) prove the problem persists

On August 31, 2016, FCA issued TSB 21-013-16 discussing the quick learn procedure for 9-speed transmission problems in the 2016 model year and what to do if customers indicate that their transmission shift quality may be erratic.

Two TSBs released in 2017 (TSB 18-018-17 and TSB 21-008-17) discuss issues related to bumps in 4th gear and harsh 4-5 upshifts.

Lawsuits wants FCA to extend a helping hand to more affected owners

In September 2018, a 2016 Cherokee owner sued FCA saying what good are those bulletins if the automaker refuses to do anything about it?

The plaintiff says she has taken the Cherokee back to the dealer about eight times and complained about the transmission problems and how they cause safety hazards while driving, but FCA and its dealers allegedly deny there are any problems.

The case is pending as of December 2018.

Are 9-Speed Transmission Worth It?

So, with all these problems are 9-speed transmissions even worth it? Maybe.

A major benefit is being able to squeeze out a couple extra MPGs even though the Cherokee remains a bit heavy in the "curb weight" department. That's extremely important given increasing fuel economy regulations via CAFE[2].

ZF-s 9-speed design gave decent acceleration to heavy vehicles while maintaining an extremely compact design.

Complex designs tend to come with complex problems

9-speeds also have their disadvantages.

The gears have a wide-ratio spread, roughly 50% more than the average 6-speed or CVT. This spread allows the transmission to have those quicker takeoffs from 1st gear while maintaining the better MPGs at cruising speeds on the highway. Here's how allpar(http://www.allpar.com/mopar/transmissions/ZF9.html) describes it:

"Four individual gear-sets and six shifting elements made it possible to have nine speeds; yet the transmission is compact, because the gear-sets were “intelligently nested” instead of being distributed on the longitudinal axis."

It's increasingly clear, however, that both FCA and ZF engineers are figuring out how to keep all 9-gears humming on the fly. How does it feel being their guinea pig?

A guinea pig

Mo' Gears, mo' problems?

For what it's worth, Cars.com says the transmission pairs better with the V6 engine because the "modestly powered four-cylinder runs out of steam when the transmission upshifts too soon, like it often does from 1st to 2nd gear."

"I had been having a really bad jumping/lurching/banging when accelerating from a stop. Less then 2 weeks after the update my transmission DIED (car totally stopped working) while driving to work in rush hour traffic on Interstate 40 going 65 mph. I am LUCKY I was not killed." - 2014 Jeep Cherokee owner in Apex, North Carolina"

ZF Thinks You're to Blame (Or Your Spouse)

When asked about drivability concerns of the 9-speed transmissions, ZF CEO Stefan Sommer said:

“We need to focus more on the regional-specific perception of how such a complex machine like an automatic transmission is working in the car, and as a consequence we have made a decision to bring more application engineering into the U.S....to be closer to the U.S. customer, to even frontload, in this tuning application work.”

I'm pretty sure the CEO just called you out as a bad driver. Or maybe it's your spouse. According to application engineer, Frieder Mohr, it could be a problem if your significant other drives with a heavy foot while you take a more gentle approach. From TheCarConnection[3]:

If you’re the gentler driver in the household, a few lumpy shifts are to be expected each time you get in after the more aggressive one. If one driver drives rapidly most or all the time, then it’s possible that the low-speed, low-load shifts won’t work so well, because the transmission will still be assuming the style of the more aggressive driver.

That should be fun dinner conversation.

Jeep Isn’t Alone

The ZF nine-speed is currently installed in the Cherokee, as well as the Jeep Renegade, Chrysler 200, Ram ProMaster City, Land Rover Range Rover Evoque, Land Rover Discovery, Acura TLX, and Acura MDX—and it’s on the way for several more vehicles within the next model year.

  1. According to Shipping Starts on Delayed 2014 Jeep Cherokee on Edmunds.com. ↩︎

  2. Corperate Average Fuel Economy standards for a 55 sq foot vehicle in 2016 is 31 MPGs / 24 EPA window sticker ↩︎

  3. From Jeep, Chrysler, Acura 9-Speed Automatics ↩︎

Generations Where This Problem Has Been Reported

This problem has popped up in the following Jeep generations.

Most years within a generation share the same parts and manufacturing process. You can also expect them to share the same problems. So while it may not be a problem in every year yet, it's worth looking out for.

Further Reading

A timeline of stories related to this problem. We try to boil these stories down to the most important bits so you can quickly see where things stand. Interested in getting these stories in an email? Signup for free email alerts for your vehicle over at CarComplaints.com.

  1. There’s a settlement on the horizon for 9-speed transmission problems, it just needs the judge’s final thumbs up.

    The Fiat Chrysler (FCA US) 9-speed transmission class-action includes all consumers who purchased or leased a new 2014-2015 Jeep Cherokee, 2015 Jeep Renegade, 2015 Chrysler 200 or 2015 ProMaster City. In addition, the consumer must still own the vehicle and it must have been purchased or leased in the U.S.

    Fiat-Chrysler (FCA) agreed to the settlement before the case went to trial, and generally it’s good news. There are a lot of complicated eligibility requirements, however, and David Wood has the full run-down on CarComplaints.com.

    keep reading article "9-Speed Transmission Settlement Just Needs the Judge’s Approval"
  2. 2016 Cherokee owners are tired of their junk 9-speed transmissions shifting hard, losing power, and making sudden unexpected movements.

    Accelerating through the first 3-gears is a particular adventure. Getting to 40mph can feel like you’re playing an overly aggressive game of red-light-green-light with a toddler.…

    keep reading article "Class-Action Lawsuit Wants Fiat-Chrysler to Take Responsibility for the Cherokee’s 9-Speed Transmission"
  3. ZF North America is recalling over 500,000 of its 9-speed transmissions (number 9HP48 or 948TE) because they can suddenly slip into neutral.

    The problem is caused by a terminal crimping issue with 26-way connectors on the sensor cluster harness assemblies.  The company says the star-shaped connector was not properly crimped and the problem wasn't caught at the factory because of a manual setting used for measurements.

    keep reading article "Defective ZF Transmission Sensors Recalled in 505,000 Vehicles"
  4. A transmission defect known to cause a sudden loss of propulsion is being recalled in over 400,000 Fiat-Chrysler (FCA) vehicles.

    [FCA] was examining warranty data and opened an investigation that determined an insufficient crimp in a wire harness could cause a fault code in the solenoid. If that occurs, the vehicle will stop moving, something Chrysler says can temporally be fixed by stopping the vehicle and re-starting the engine.

    keep reading article "FCA Blames Wiring Harness Problem on ZF Transmission’s Sudden Loss of Propulsion"
  5. A new lawsuit says the Cherokee’s 9-speed transmission is so riddled with problems that even Fiat-Chrysler (FCA) doesn’t know how to fix them.

    The lawsuit alleges Fiat Chrysler delayed the launch of the 2014 Jeep Cherokee to keep working on the new transmissions, then quickly had to issue two technical service bulletins to dealers.…

    keep reading article "2014 Cherokee Owners Say Their 9-Speed Transmission is a Cursed Bucket of Bolts"

What Owners Say About This Problem

Cherokee 9 gear transmission shift rough in low gears. Lunging, hesitations, and spinning wheels from stop. Had software update for free at local dealership. This reduced the severity of issue but no way corrects it.

2014 Cherokee Owner in CA

[My dad] ... complained about the surging that happened after he stopped (feeling like something had run into his back-end); the hesitations when leaving a stop sign or speeding up and the hard/rough shifts as the “automatic” transmission shifted, that he noticed as he drove it. The dealership ... told him, “That’s how this car is built, there isn’t any way to change it”.

2015 Renegade Owner in IL

OK, Now What?

Maybe you've experienced this problem. Maybe you're concerned you will soon. Whatever the reason, here's a handful of things you can do to make sure it gets the attention it deserves.

  1. File Your Complaint

    CarComplaints.com is a free site dedicated to uncovering problem trends and informing owners about potential issues with their cars. Major class action law firms use this data when researching cases.

    Add a Complaint
  2. Notify CAS

    The Center for Auto Safety (CAS) is a pro-consumer organization that researches auto safety issues & often compels the US government to do the right thing through lobbying & lawsuits.

    Notify The CAS
  3. Report a Safety Concern

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is the US agency with the authority to conduct vehicle defect investigations & force recalls. Their focus is on safety-related issues.

    Report to NHTSA